SOLBAT – Solid state metal anode batteries

The solid-state battery (SSB) is one of the most important challenges in battery R&D. As well as increasing energy density, lifetime and transforming safety, SSBs would enable step changes in the safety, driving range and longevity of electric vehicles. In contrast to work on lithium-ion batteries, SSB research stands out as long-term and high-risk, but potentially high-gain. If SSBs could be realised and used in UK-manufactured EVs they would help secure the long-term growth of the UK’s car industry, employment and economy. Ceramic solids are sufficiently conductive that electrolytes are no longer the biggest hurdle facing SSB development: the barriers are at the interfaces between the electrolyte and both electrodes, in the mechanics throughout the cell and in the manufacturing at scale.

Project presentation from the Faraday Institution Conference, November 2021


  • Understand the fundamental challenges facing the construction of solid-state batteries.
  • Use the new knowledge acquired to develop solutions to the problems, potentially including, but not limited to, new materials and new manufacturing approaches.
  • Demonstrate, using technoeconomic modelling, that the solutions could scale to a commercially competitive product.

The following key metrics need to be demonstrated for solid-state batteries to be taken forward through development:

  • Store at least 50% more energy as a conventional lithium-ion battery of the same volume (higher energy density).
  • Non-flammable when subject to the nail penetration test and when operated at temperatures above 100°C (safer).
  • Fully charged in less than 30 minutes (higher power); and
  • Can be cycled 500 times with 80% capacity retention (cycle life).
SOLBAT graphic

Project funding
1 March 2018 - 31 March 2023
Principal Investigator
Professor Peter Bruce
University of Oxford

Project Leader
Professor Mauro Pasta
University of Oxford
University Partners
University of Oxford (Lead)
University College London
University of Liverpool
University of Sheffield
University of Warwick
+ 3 Industrial Partners


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